Board – CBSE
Topic- Food: Where Does It Come From
Ingredient: Any substances or materials that are required to produce a dish are called Ingredients. Example: Atta (flour) and water are the two ingredients required to make a chapatti.
Food Materials and Sources
Plants act as sources of food ingredients such as fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses etc.
Animals are sources of food ingredients such as milk, eggs, meat products etc.
These are shown in the figure.
Some examples of edible plant parts are shown in the image above and their examples are given below:
- Roots: beets, carrots, radishes, turnips, ginger,
- Stems: broccoli stem, bamboo shoots, sugar cane, potato
- Leaves: spinach, lettuce etc.
- Fruits: apple, pear, tomatoes, grapes, cherries, oranges
- Edible Flowers: broccoli heads, cauliflower heads
- Seeds: sunflower seeds
Food is needed by all living beings for four main purposes:
- for their growth.
- to provide energy for doing work.
- for the repair and replacement of the damaged tissues.
- to provide resistance and protection against diseases from infections.
What do Animals Eat?
Animals can be classified into three broad categories in terms of what they eat as can be seen in the image,
First, we have the herbivores i.e. plant-eaters. They only consume plant parts.
Examples: Cows, goats, deer, giraffes etc.
Next, we have the carnivores i.e. meat-eaters. They only consume the meat of other animals.
Examples: Lions, tigers, vultures, etc.
Last we have omnivores i.e. animals who eat both plant parts and meat products.
Examples: Humans, bears, etc.
There are five major components of food namely vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. While the diet of carnivores is rich in fats and proteins, there are some necessary vitamins and minerals in plant-based foods that their diet lacks. Similarly in all plant-based diet lacks a good amount of protein and certain minerals. It is important to know that there is a difference between vegetarians and herbivores. While vegetarians make a conscious decision to not eat meat, herbivores on the other hand are incapable of eating meat and dairy products. Similarly, carnivores lack the necessary enzymes in their stomachs to digest cellulose which is a major component of green food like grass.
Nectar: The juicy sweet liquid secreted within flowers that is sucked by bees and is made into honey by them.
Sprouting: The process by which seeds shoot out small white structures as a way of growth is called Sprouting.
Cellulose: It is a substance that is found in the cell walls of a number of plants. It is an indigestible fiber and is found in grass.
Enzymes: It is defined as a chemical substance that helps in bringing about changes to certain other substances without undergoing any changes in themselves.
Herbivore: Animals that eat plants and plant products like fruits, flowers, seeds, nectar, etc., are called herbivores.
Carnivore: Animals that eat other animals are called carnivores.
Omnivore: Animals that eat both plants and their products, as well as other animals, are called omnivores.